Vermicomposting References

This won’t likely be the most popular feature of the site, but it may be of some use for those of you with an interest in the science of vermicomposting. Over the years I have amassed a respectable collection of journal articles and reference lists, but have yet to organize everything into one solid list (until now, that is!).

This section is by no means comprehensive at the moment, but I will continue to expand as I continue to dig up vermicomposting literature.

Please forgive my tendency to use multiple citation styles – putting together the list is time consuming as it is, thus making sure all references follow the exact same format would be a little much.



Gupta, R., Mutiyar, P.K, Rawat, N.K., Saini, M.S., and Garg, V.K. 2007. Development of a water hyacinth based vermireactor using an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida. Bioresource Technology 98(13):2605-10.

Parthasarathi, K., Ranganathan, L.S., Anandi, V., and Zeyer, J. 2007. Diversity of microflora in the gut and casts of tropical composting earthworms reared on different substrates. Journal of Environmental Biology 28(1):87-97.

Pramanik, P., Ghosh, G.K., Ghosal, P.K., and Banik, P. 2007. Changes in organic – C, N, P and K and enzyme activities in vermicompost of biodegradable organic wastes under liming and microbial inoculants. Bioresource technology 98(13):2485-94.

Roberts, P., Edwards-Jones, G., and Jones, D.L. 2007. Yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to vermicompost applications. Compost Science & Utilization 15(1):6-15.


Aira, M., Monroy, F., and Dominguez, J. 2006. C to N ratio strongly affects population structure of Eisenia fetida in vermicomposting systems. European Journal of Soil Biology 42:S127-S131.

Aira, M., Monroy, F., and Dominguez, J. 2006. Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) activates fungal growth, triggering cellulose decomposition during vermicomposting. Microbial Ecology 52(4):738-747.

Garg, V.K., Kaushik, P., and Dilbaghi, N. 2006. Vermiconversion of wastewater sludge from textile mill mixed with anaerobically digested biogas plant slurry employing Eisenia foetida. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 65(3):412-419.

Hidalgo, P.R., Matta, F.B., and Harkess, R.L. 2006. Physical and chemical properties of substrates containing earthworm castings and effects on marigold growth. Hortscience 41(6):1474-1476.

Kostecka, J., and Paczka, G. 2006. Possible use of earthworm Eisenia fetida (Sav.) biomass for breeding aquarium fish. European Journal of Soil Biology 42:S231-S233.

Kurien, J., and Ramasamy, E.V. 2006. Vermicomposting of Taro (Colocasia esculenta) with two epigeic earthworm species. Bioresource Technology 97(11):1324-1328.

Monroy, F., Aira, M., Dominguez, J., and Velando, A. 2006. Seasonal population dynamics of Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826) (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) in the field. Comptes Rendus Biologies 329(11):912-915.

Nair, J., Sekiozoic, V., and Anda, M. 2006. Effect of pre-composting on vermicomposting of kitchen waste. Bioresource Technology 97(16):2091-2095.

Suthar, S. 2006. Potential utilization of guar gum industrial waste in vermicompost production. Bioresource Technology 97(18):2474-2477.

Tato, A., Velando, A., and Dominguez, J. 2006. Influence of size and partner preference on the female function of the earthworm Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae). European Journal of Soil Biology 42:S331-S333

Velando, A., Dominguez, J., and Ferreiro, A. 2006. Inbreeding and outbreeding reduces cocoon production in the earthworm Eisenia andrei. European Journal of Soil Biology 42:S354-S357.

Williams, A.P., Roberts, P., Avery, L.M., Killham, K., and Jones, D.L. 2006. Earthworms as vectors of Escherichia coli O157 : H7 in soil and vermicomposts. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 58(1):54-64.


Fuente, M., Gordillo, R.M., Young, M., Smith, S., and Neff, M. 2005. Vermicomposting in urban settings. BioCycle 46(12):44.

Garg, V.K., and Kaushik, P. 2005. Vermistabilization of textile mill sludge spiked with poultry droppings by an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida. Bioresource Technology 96(9):1063-1071.

Guerrero, R.D. III, 2005. Vermicomposting Gets High Marks In The Tropics. BioCycle 46(8):60-62.

Gupta, S.K., Tewari, A., Srivastava, R., Murthy, R.C., and Chandra, S. 2005. Potential of Eisenia foetida for sustainable and efficient vermicomposting of fly ash. Water Air and Soil Pollution 163(1-4):293-302.

Paul, L.C., and Metzger, J.D. 2005. Impact of vermicompost on vegetable transplant quality. Hortscience 40(7):2020-2023.

Srivastava, R., Kumar, D., and Gupta, S.K. 2005. Bioremediation of municipal sludge by vermitechnology and toxicity assessment by Allium cepa. Bioresource Technology 96(17):1867-1871.


Gajalakshmi, S., and Abbasi, S.A. 2004. Vermiconversion of paper waste by earthworm born and grown in the waste-fed reactors compared to the pioneers raised to adulthood on cowdung feed. Bioresource Technology 94(1):53-56.

Gardner, D.S. 2004. Use of vermicomposted waste materials as a turfgrass fertilizer. Horttechnology 14(3):372-375.

Kaushik, P., and Garg, V.K. 2004. Dynamics of biological and chemical parameters during vermicomposting of solid textile mill sludge mixed with cow dung and agricultural residues. Bioresource Technology 94(2):203-209.

Taylor, M., Clarke, W.P., Greenfield, P.F., and Swain, G.J. 2004. Characterizing the physical and chemical properties of a vermicompost filter bed. Compost Science & Utilization 12(4):383-391.

Whitlock, D.R. 2004. Increased growth in Eisenia fetida following inhibition of commensal NO-producing bacteria with acetylene. Nitric-Oxide Biology and Chemistry 11(1):88.


Holocombe, D., and J.J. Longfellow. 2003. OSCR: blueprint for a successful vermicomposting system. Technical document. 57 p.

Kaviraj, and S. Sharma. 2003. Municipal solid waste management through vermicomposting employing exotic and local species of earthworm. Bioresource Technology, 90, 169-173.

Maboeta, M.S., and L. van Rensburg. 2003. Vermicomposting of industrially produced woodchips and sewage sludge utilizing Eisenia fetida. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 56, 265-270.


Arancon, N., Edwards, C.A., Yardim, F., Lee, S. 2002 Management of plant parasitic nematodes by use of vermicomposts. Proceedings of Brighton Crop Protection Conference- Pests and Diseases. Vol. II, 8B-2, 705-710.

Atiyeh, R.M., N.Q. Arancon, C.A. Edwards, and J.D. Metzger. 2002. The influence of earthworm-processed pig manure on the growth and productivity of marigolds. Bioresource Technology, 81, 103-108.

Atiyeh, R.M., S. Lee, C.A. Edwards N.Q. Arancon, and J.D. Metzger. 2002. The influence of humic acids derived from earthworm-processed organic wastes on plant growth. Bioresource Technology, 84, 7-14.

Chaoui, H., Edwards, C.A., Brickner, M., Lee, S. and Arancon, N. 2002 Suppression of the plant diseases, Pythium (damping off), Rhizoctonia (root rot) and Verticillum(wilt) by Vermicomposts. Proceedings of Brighton Crop Protection Conference- Pests and Diseases. Vol II, 8B-3, 711-716.

Dominguez, J., Parmelee, R.W., Edwards, C.A. 2002. Interactions between Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta) and nematode populations in cattle manure and biosolids . Pedobiologia 47, 53-60

Gajalakshmi, S., E.V. Ramasamy, and S.A. Abbasi. 2002. High-rate composting-vermicomposting of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, Mart. Solms). Bioresource Technology, 83, 235-239.

Gunadi, B., C. Blount, and C.A. Edwards. 2002. The growth and fecundity of Eisenia fetida (Savigny) in cattle solids pre-composted for different periods. Pedobiologia, 46, 15-23.

Singh, A., and S. Sharma. 2002. Composting of a crop residue through treatment with microorganisms and subsequent vermicomposting. Bioresource Technology, 85, 107-111.


Atiyeh, R.M., C.A. Edwards, S. Subler, and J.D. Metzger. 2001. Pig manure vermicompost as a component of a horticultural bedding plant medium: effects on physiochemical properties and plant growth. Bioresource Technology, 78, 11-20.

Atiyeh, R. M., Edwards, C.A., Subler, S. and Metzger, J.D. 2001. Pig manure vermicompost as a component of a horticultural bedding plant medium: effects on physicochemical properties and plant growth. Bioresource Technology 78, 11-20.

Dominguez, J., Edwards, C.A., Ashby, J. 2001. The biology and population dynamics of Eudrilus eugeniae in cattle waste solids. Pedobiologia 45, 341-353.

Eastman, B.R., P.N. Kane, C.A. Edwards, L. Trytek, B. Gunadi, A.L. Sterner, and J. R. Mobley. 2001. The effectiveness of vermiculture in human pathogen reduction for USEPA biosolids stabilization. Compost Science & Utilization, 9, 38-49.

Gajalakshmi, S., E.V. Ramasamy, and S.A. Abbasi. 2001. Towards maximizing output from vermireactors fed with cowdung spiked paper waste. Bioresource Technology, 79, 67-72.

Kumar, V., and K.P. Singh. 2001. Enriching vermicompost by nitrogen fixing and phosphate solubilizing bacteria. Bioresource Technology, 76, 173-175.

Ndegwa, P.M., and S.A. Thompson. 2001. Integrating composting and vermicomposting in the treatment and bioconversion of biosolids. Bioresource Technology, 76, 107-112.

Szczech, M., and U. Smolinska. 2001. Comparison of suppressiveness of vermicomposts produced from animal manures and sewage sludge against Phytophthora nicotianae Breda de Haan var. nicotiannae. Journal of Phytopathology, 149, 77-82.


Atiyeh, R.M., Dominguez, J., Subler, S., Edwards, C.A. 2000. Changes in biochemical properties of cow manure processed by earthworms (Eisenia andreii) and their effects on plant-growth. Pedobiologia. 44, 709-724.

Atiyeh, R.M., Edwards, C.A., Subler, S., Metzger, J.D. 2000. Earthworm processed organic wastes as components of horticultural potting media for growing marigolds and vegetable seedlings. Compost Science and Utilization. 8 (3) 215-223.

Atiyeh, R.M., N.Q. Arancon, C.A. Edwards, and J.D. Metzger. 2000. Influence of earthworm-processed pig manure on the growth and yield of greenhouse tomatoes. Bioresource Technology, 75, 175-180.

Atiyeh, R.M., Subler, S., Edwards, C.A., Bachman, G., Metzger, J.D. and Shuster, W. 2000. Effects of vermicomposts and composts on plant growth in horticulture container media and soil. Pedobiologia 44, 579-590.

Bansal, S., and K.K. Kapoor. 2000. Vermicomposting of crop residue and cattle dung with Eisenia foetida. Bioresource Technology, 73, 95-98.

Masciandaro, G., B. Ceccanti, and C. Garcia. 2000. “In situ” vermicomposting of biological sludges and impacts on soil quality. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32, 1015-1024.

Ndegwa, P.M., and S.A. Thompson. 2000. Effects of C-to-N ratio on vermicomposting of biosolids. Bioresource Technology, 75, 7-12.

Ndegwa, P.M., S.A. Thompson, and K.C. Das. 2000. Effects of stocking density and feeding rate on vermicomposting of biosolids. Bioresource Techology, 71, 5-12.


Atiyeh, R.M., Subler, S., Edwards, C.A., Metzger, J. 1999. Growth of tomato plants in horticultural media amended with vermicompost. Pedobiologia, 43, 724-728.

Benitez, E., R. Nogales, C. Elvira, G. Masciandaro, and B. Ceccanti. 1999. Enzyme activities as indicators of the stabilization of sewage sludges composting with Eisenia foetida. Bioresource Technology, 67, 297-303.

Dominguez, J., Edwards, C.A., & Webster, M. 1999. Vermicomposting of sewage sludge solids: Effects of bulking materials on the growth and reproduction of the earthworm Eisenia andreii (Bouché). Pedobiologia, 43 (4). 372-379.

Ghosh, M., G.N. Chattopadhyay, and K. Baral. 1999. Transformation of phosphorus during vermicomposting. Bioresource Technology, 69, 149-154.

Szczech, M.M. 1999. Suppressiveness of vermicomposts against fusarium wilt of tomato. Journal of Phytopathology, 147, 155-161.


Edwards, C.A. 1998. The Commercial and Environmental Potential of Vermicomposting. Waste Handling Equipment, June 1998, Section A, 16-18.

Edwards, C.A., Dominguez, J. and Neuhauser, E.F. 1998. The earthworm Perionyx excavatus and its potential use in waste management. Biology and Fertility of Soils 27: 155-161.

Elvira, C., L. Sampedro, E. Benítez, and R. Nogales. 1998. Vermicomposting of sludges from paper mill and dairy industries with Eisenia Andrei: a pilot-scale study. Bioresource Technology, 63, 205-211.

Subler, S., C.A. Edwards, and J.D. Metzger. 1998. Comparing vermicomposts and composts. Biocycle, 39 (7), 63-66.


Domínguez, J., and C.A. Edwards. 1997. Effects of stocking rate and moisture content on the growth and maturation of Eisenia Andrei (Oligochaeta) in pig manure. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 29, 743-746.

Domínguez, J., C.A. Edwards, and S. Subler. 1997. A comparison of vermicomposting and composting. Biocycle, 38(4), 57-59.

Elvira, C., L. Sampedro, J. Domínguez, and S. Mato. 1997. Vermicomposting of wastewater sludge from paper-pulp industry with nitrogen rich materials. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 29, 759-762.

Frederickson, J., K.R. Butt, R.M. Morris, and C. Daniel. 1997. Combining vermiculture with traditional green waste composting systems. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 29, 725-730.

Mitchell, A. 1997. Production of Eisenia fetida and vermicompost from feed-lot cattle manure. Soil Biology and Biochemisty, 29, 763-766.


Elvira, C., M. Goicoechea, L. Sampedro, S. Mato, and R. Nogales. 1996. Bioconversion of solid paper-pulp mill sludge by earthworms. Bioresource Technology, 57, 173-177.


Edwards, C.A. 1995. Commercial and environmental potential of vermicomposting: A historical overview. BioCycle, June 1995, 62-63.







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