Apologies for the lapse in posts lately! Lots on the go these days, but still aiming to be much more active in coming weeks and months.
Today I wanted to chat about worm bin mites. Pretty well everyone who sets up their own home system is bound to encounter mites at one time or another. Many people tend to lump them together as a group (ie. “I have mites”) and assume they are ‘bad’ – especially when there is an abundance of them.
Well, mites are of course a ‘group’ – they belong to the class Arachnida (along with spiders) and the subclass Acarina – but they are a hugely diverse group, with thousands of species occupying many different niches and serving a wide array of functions. They are found in abundance both on land and in aquatic habitats.
They are among the smallest of the arthropods (the group that includes crustaceans, insects, mites and spiders – among others), and thus are often over-looked. This also helps to explain why people have difficulty distinguishing different varieties in their bins. According to Walter & Proctor (1999) the highest diversity of mites occurs in soil and decaying organic matter – apparently a handful of forest soil can contain as many as 100 different species (and many thousands of individuals).
Mites can be predators, detritivores, herbivores, and parasites. Some (predator) species are widely used as biological control agents, feeding on a wide array of different plant pests. Generally speaking, most mites found in a compost heap (or worm bin) are relatively harmless, simply feeding on decaying organic matter.
Let’s now chat about some of the varieties you can encounter in your bin. This is purely based on personal observation, and thus not scientifically validated. 🙂
My descriptions are based mainly on colour, body shape and speed of locomotion. I’m hoping to study mites a lot more in the future and will hopefully be able to add to this info at some point.
Flattened / Fast moving / Light Brown – These are usually predatory mites. I actually bought some Hypoaspis miles (a predatory biocontrol agent) once in an attempt to deal with a really bad fungus gnat infestation I had in a couple of my bins. They were very small, light brown in colour, and very fast! I’ve seen similar mites in outdoor manure and compost piles, and sometimes in my indoor bins as well. Predatory mites are of course encouraged in a worm composting system since they can feed on other creatures typically thought of as pests.
Reddish-Brown / Slow moving – Mites like the one picture above on the left seem to be fairly common in my worm bins. They seem especially attracted to water-rich cucumber family fruit (or vegetables – however you choose to look at it). The photo above was actually taken on a watermelon rind (during my coffee cup challenge), but I’ve seen lots on squash as well. I’ve actually read that putting some watermelon in your bin is a great way to get rid of them (if you have a major infestation and are worried they are competing with your worms for food). Simply leave the melon to sit for a day or two then remove it (presumably with a huge number of mites attached). For the most part, these mites won’t cause your worms any harm other than potential competition.
White Shiny Round Mites / VERY slow moving – many people report seeing lots of “eggs” in their bins. Most of those who have not yet seen a worm cocoon (which is much larger) assume they are ‘worm eggs’, and I’ll even admit to being fooled into thinking they are the eggs of some other creature. Upon closer examination, you will see that they are in fact mites. This type of mite (which may in fact be a couple different varieties – as the pictures above almost seem to suggest) is sometimes assumed to be a worm predator or parasite since they sometimes found covering worms. The only times I have seen this myself has been when my worms were dying or dead already – the mites seem to be scavengers (like little worm bin vultures – haha). I currently have quite a few of these (or at least a similar variety), but they seem to be attracted to some squash segments I’ve been composting (for an upcoming video).
Those are the main groups of mites I have encountered indoors. In outdoor systems there will definitely be a much greater diversity of species.
One other variety I should mention. There is apparently a ‘red mite’ that is parasitic on adult worms and eggs. Infestations of this mite seem to occur in the beds of worm farmers on occasion. The only (academic literature) records of parasitic mites – on worms that is – I could find were those species that parasitize worm eggs (not adults). Bottom-line, you definitely don’t need to worry TOO much about the parasitic varieties. There haven’t been all that many cases reported from the sounds of things.
Here are some additional thoughts and generalizations about worm bin mites…
They seem to like high moisture conditions and water-rich foods. An population explosion of mites in your system(s) could be an indication of over-feeding, or of your worms dying (which could of course occur if you were over-feeding). Again, for the most part you don’t need to get too stressed out about mites in your bin. Be assured, they are there to serve a function, and may simply indication that your system has shifted out of balance somewhat. In fact, they often appear in abundance early on when systems are not yet balanced.
Ok, thats all for now. Be sure to share any interesting mite experiences you might (or should I say ‘mite’ – yuk yuk) have had as well!
Walter, D. and H. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution & Behavior. CABI Publishing, New York. 322pp.
Hi im having this white mite on my ginger plant i thought they are harmful and i added neem juice and they were going away from the plant did it for 2 days and today is the third day
But i just cant get rid of them before planting ginger in the soil i had added banana peels than lemon peel in the soil and than planted ginger
If these mites are good that y my ginger plant tips r getting white ?
When would the mites go away ?
From the article i have understood they r good but than wht is happening to my plant shouldnt they flourish rather than getting white ? pls help
I have had the red mites in my bins but today found a weird occurance. I leave my castings sitting for at least 30 days to get out any eggs or eggs that hatch. Since I no longer have any moe eggs or worms in the castings I put the lid on and today went in to find the red mites all over the lid of the castings. Twice in one day. Just washed them down the tub with hot water. The castings are kept just moist enough to keep all the good bacteria alive. Just thought it was weird. It was not air tight, and I am sure there is still stuff in castings for them to eat.
While the system may not be air tight, it is likely that the 02 levels drop substantially when the lid is on – especially with all that microbial activity going on in there. I have seen this sort of thing happen in systems that don’t have enough air flow. In your case, not such a bad thing since it helps you flush out the mites (which won’t likely add any value to the castings).
Hi. I’m new to vermicompost and this site has been very helpful: thank you. I too have a white mite overpopulation (in the morning I’m finding dead mites around the bin and on the bottom of the lid). I think I was overfeeding the worms, so I stopped a couple of days ago and since then I’ve been following the advice posted here (I’ve left watermelon as trap, I’ve added carbon in the form of cardboard and coconut coir, and I’ve let the lid off for long periods of time). It’s been 5 days, though, and the population of mites doesn’t seem to be reduced. They seem to love the cardboard and the coconut coir! Anyway, besides the mess, I’m worried about my wrigglers. I can’t be sure, but I think there are fewer worms than there were a couple of weeks ago. They don’t look unhealthy, and I even see baby worms, but I’m worried. Any new advice? Thank you.
Hi Ruben – hard to say for sure without actually seeing your system (or at least some close up shots), but I can’t help but wonder if you are actually seeing springtails NOT mites. There is a very common variety that is white in color, doesn’t actually jump, and can be very abundant in worm composting systems. Massive quantities of them would still suggest overfeeding (or at least poorly optimized food) but just generally, they tend to stick around more than the mites.
Regardless, I would be a bit more patient with the system. Add very little in the way of food (if anything), provide plenty of air flow, make sure there is a lot of moistened bedding in there, and things should settle down over time.
Hello! Thank you for all the useful information on your page. Our greenhouse team just started worm bins hoping to get some castings to use for the next season.
Like Cathy above, I have the same issue with the first harvest of the castings. They have lots of red mites(the one in the picture on the left, reddish brown/slow moving)…I removed them as much as possible by using food to attract them and removing them in chunks when they are congregating. Would they harm the plants if I used the castings as top dressing for existing plants or as fertilizer to make new soil for seedlings? I would really appreciate if you have any inputs! Thank you 🙂
Always important to consider what the mites are attracted to / are consuming. Vermicomposting system mites are attracted to and are consuming decomposing organic matter. They have no interest in living plants. There are so many different species of mites in the world – and they occupy so many ecological niches – it is truly mind boggling. Bottom-line, I wouldn’t be concerned about it. Let the castings sit for a period of time after harvest and the mites should disappear since they won’t have a food source.
I am having a huge amount of the tiny white and moving very slow mites in my compost bin. Should I get rid of them? Are they good or bad?
Hi! I think I may have put too much soil when i first started my vermicomposting. I am now having a bit of a mite problem. I have stopped feeding the worms and put a lot of bedding to help with the moisture. But now that i think of it i think it’s because i used moisture retaining soil… le sigh… I think the worms are doing ok. but i don’t want to leave it as is if this will eventually hurt the worms. any reccommendations?
Adele (sorry for delay) – slow moving white mites are very common and nothing to worry about. If you see heaps and heaps of them it just means you’ve added too much food for the worms to eat within a reasonable timeframe – certainly kinds of foods seem especially appealing for them (eg starchy wastes). Cut back on feeding, and maybe increase air flow, add more bedding up top – these should help.
Angela – soil doesn’t really belong in a worm composting system. You are better off using some form of (hopefully bulky) bedding material like shredded cardboard. Mites do tend to thrive in wet, low air flow bins – but lots of food is usually the real culprit. Improve air flow – cut back on feeding – more bedding (deja vu – hahaha)
I just started vermicomposting (at the moment, it’s inside the house because it’s cold out ).
I am using the lure and remove method to get rid of the red mites. I accidentally dropped the food with the mites on them on my carpet and I cleaned it as best as I can.
My question is: What happens now? If I miss a few mites, will it live and reproduce on my carpet? Should I throw away my carpet?
Absolutely NOT, Yan. It is really important to remember the environment these mites (and other worm bin organisms) are adapted for. It is not a dry carpet – it is a moist environment rich in organic matter. They would likely die in a very short time period. Also keep in mind that none of these organisms pose a threat to people or pets (again – they are adapted for composting environment – they aren’t parasites etc).
I got a phonescope/smartphone microscope for about 7 quid and looked a the reddish mites on the under side of the lid. I think most of them are macrocheles robustulus with a few hypoaspis miles hanging out with them. They both eat fungus gnats and thrips in your soil apparently, cool
I continually have an abundance of white mites in my worm bins. I think they bother me more than the worms. I have tried several different methods of “trapping” them (i.e. melon etc…). I have had the most success with AA grade office paper > I dampen it, lay it on the top of the bedding at night time, then close the lid (I live in Southeast asia so my bins have to be enclosed to prevent the geckos from devouring my worms). In the morning, when I open the lid, I take out the paper and “Voila”, thousands of mites. Place it in the sunlight and the mites meet their demise!
Are those types of mites able to infest your house ? I live in a small appartment and I keep my worm bins in a closet, but when i feed them i always wonder if the mites can infest my house after falling on my table. Or, if they crawl on my hands, as I saw some of them do, can they be bad for you ? like small parasite…
MARK – yeah, I think once there are thousands of mites in a bin they can start to ‘bug’ the worms simply by crawling over them all the time. But it always comes down to optimizing for worms not mites. Interesting idea about shining sunlight on them!
OLIVIER – the most common worm bin mites don’t infest houses because they are adapted for life in a moist, rich environment. There do seem to be some very tiny sandy colored mites that can sometimes end up in worm bins but MAY also survive in much drier locations – these types of mites can get into cereals, animal feeds and create hassles. Overall, not something to be concerned about – you are far more likely to introduce these ones via dry goods that have already been infested. As for human parasites – very very unlikely you are going to end up with any in a typical worm bin – and the common mites certainly aren’t.
I’m incredibly impressed with the tone of your writing here! I found your style very helpful and easy to follow. I’ve been on a couple websites while educating myself as a new vermicomposter, and sometimes my brain gets overwhelmed. This article was super in-depth, straight to the point, and very empathetic. Thank you for an awesome article! And now to hopefully reduce the mite population in my bin.. 🙂
I was worried about using some Fox Farms Happy Frog to jump start a new bin because their mixes are know to include predatory mite (Stratiolaelaps scimitus) so was wondering if you still feel they are safe for worms and only attack harmful nematodes, thris, fungus gnat larave etc?
Hey Chad – predatory mites (sold for insect control etc) are typically very targeted for particular organisms – eg fungus gnat larvae. Highly unlikely they are voracious worm predators.
I emptied a bag of Cedar Grove compost into a lightly covered (air available) pail about a month ago and now, there are millions of pale yellow/white mites clustered on the chunks and quickly crawling as they are disturbed. All your answers that I read mention actively worked on bins, but since my story is about commercial compost, I would love an answer.
Thank you!!! — Ann
Hi Ann – are you absolutely sure these aren’t springtails? One of the most common types of springtail in composting systems is white and doesn’t actually jump (like a typical springtail). I could definitely see compost getting invaded by them. Whatever the critters are, all this really means is that there was some form of abundant food source left in the compost for them to take advantage of. The types of scavenger mites (or springtails I mentioned) that live in composting systems aren’t going to cause issues in a garden. If you really want to discourage them, maybe lay the material out on a tarp in the sun and then just keep scraping away the upper layers. You should end up with most of the organisms concentrated down at the very bottom.