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The Vermicomposting Trench

I’ve been looking forward to writing this post for quite some time now. As I mentioned in the post about my restaurant vermicomposting project, the trench idea started as somewhat desperate attempt to deal with the large quantities of food waste I’ve been receiving each week. Since that time, it has become much more than that – I like to think of it as a long-term, slow-release, natural fertilizer factory (or LTSRNFF for short – haha).

I situated my first trench directly in front of my tomato bed, thinking that it might help them grow somewhat better. Unlike last year, I decided not to add slow-release fertilizer sticks so that I could see the full potential of the natural method (or all of the negative repercussions if it didn’t work). One thing I was somewhat concerned about was the fact that I didn’t set up the trench well before the planting of the tomatoes – in fact, the trench ended up going in a week after the tomatoes were planted!

My concern revolved around the fact that I was adding lots of stinky, anaerobic waste (from other food waste composting attempts gone wrong) and materials that were not very well stabilized (decomposed) in general. It is known that various phytotoxic compounds can be produced via anaerobic processes, so I worried that I would end up stunting the growth. The ideal situation would involve setting up your trench months before you plant anything, so that by the time they go in, there is a rich supply of composted materials to start tapping for nutrients.

As I have discovered however, a trench can really go in at any time! I’ve seen no indication that the plants have been suffering as a result of their close proximity to the trench – and I think that right there is the key – the “close proxity”. You are not, after all, planting your crop directly in anaerobic sludge. You are basically giving them the option of spreading their roots in that direction. The interesting thing is that they do in fact seem to send roots into the material (composted or not) quite quickly.

One thing that likely helped my tomatoes right off the bat was the fact that I added a scoop of Worm Power worm castings into each hole. As I’ve discovered this year, worm castings are a fantastic material for helping any plant get started, whether it be a seedling or a transplant.

Time to move on to the actual creation of a vermicomposting trench. The set of photos I’ve included below actually feature the third trench I installed this year – basically a continuation of the tomato bed trench. I recently wrote about my lack of gardening skills over at, and this was a prime example. I planted this bed (which contains zucchinis and several different legumes) way later than I should have, and again dug the trench even later still. Yet again, the composting worms have come to my rescue – I added quite a bit of worm compost (harvested from my outdoor worm bin) into each hole, and more was added as a top dressing as well.

The first thing I (obviously) had to do was dig the actual trench – certainly the most labour-intensive and tedious part of the job. The depth and width of the trench is definitely up to you. I chose not to go down quite as far with this trench as I did with the one in front of the tomato bed. Keep in mind, the deeper you make it the more anaerobic it will be down below. This may or may not be an issue – just something to consider. Deeper (and wider) trenches have the advantage of being able to hold more material.

Next, I added a lot of coarsely shredded corrugated cardboard. This creates a bit of a ‘false bottom’, helping to absorb excess moisture from the rotting waste materials, as helping to balance the C:N ratio of the mix (I like to err on the side of higher C when vermicomposting).

It may look like straw, but this is actually partially decomposed material from my backyard composters. As you may recall, I had zero luck when I initially tried using my backyard composter (only one was active at the time) to compost food waste, but once I had a lot of straw available I was able to start using the composters again – with much greater success, I might add.

This pre-composted material should create a good ‘habitat’ for the composting worms added later. You don’t really need to add this (I didn’t add any to my first trench) – I just happened to have it on-hand, and knew it would work well in the trench. This is important to keep in mind when building a composting trench – don’t focus so much on exact instructions as you do on the principles involved, and the materials you happen to have on-hand. If I installed 5 trenches, I can pretty well guarantee that they would all be different – BUT, they would all be constructed with the principles of vermicomposting in mind.

Here is another layer of shredded cardboard. This time it was shredded egg flats (from the restaurant) – in my opinion, the best kind of cardboard to use for vermicomposting. As you can probably tell, the vermicomposting trench is set up in a ‘lasagna composting’ manner, with alternating layers of ‘greens’ and ‘browns’ (again, with more emphasis on browns, since it is a worm system).

Next, I added a lot of chopped up food waste – apple peels and cores, carrot peels, turnip peels, lettuce, broccoli stalks, egg shells etc. It was added in fairly shallow layers, but given the length of the trench, it was actually quite a lot of material.

I’ve actually left out a couple more alternating layers (I’ll include everything in the video I’m going to make), but I think you get the general idea. One of the important steps not shown was the addition of composting worms. I basically just harvested a LOT of partially mature vermicompost (containing lots and lots of worms) from my outdoor worm bin and added it as a layer over some moistened coconut coir. I have continued to add more worms since then as well. If you want to get your system working for you very quickly, the best bet is to add a lot of worms at once – you may however want to get yourself a compost thermometer before doing so. Since these trenches can hold a lot of material, they can also heat up quite a bit – the last thing you want to kill your worms or cause them to leave the area.

The final step involved adding a nice thick layer of straw. This helps to keep moisture and bad odour in, and hot sunlight and worm predators (like Robins) out.

That’s pretty much it! So far, I’ve been blown away by how well these trenches are working for me. My tomato plants are literally bigger than any tomatoes I’ve ever grown before – and we’re only part way through the season! I think the limitless water-supply (released from rotting waste) and readily available nutrients, combined with the seemingly-magical growth stimulating properties of worm castings has created the ultimate environment for ‘growing stuff’. I’m not 100% sure I would see the same results with trees, shrubs and perrenials – but I’ll certainly be interested to find out!

Needless to say, I’ll be providing more updates as the growing season progresses. As mentioned, I will also be putting together a video all about making a vermicomposting trench.

Stay tuned!

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Written by Bentley on July 22nd, 2008 with 78 comments.
Read more articles on Gardening and Large-Scale Vermicomposting.

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Get your own gravatar by visiting Kim from Milwaukee
#1. July 22nd, 2008, at 5:32 PM.

Bentley, thank you for posting this detailed setting up of your trench method of vermicomposting. I’ve been thinking of doing this outdoors to deal with pet waste, and I think I could easily set this up in an area of yard that doesn’t seem to grow anything at this point.

I have one question though….you have this trench in a sunny location, good for the tomato plants, but not bad for the worms??? Will they be able to stay cool? And do you need to water this trench on a regular basis as well? The location I’m considering is mostly shade, which is why veggies won’t grow there, but if I could do this anywhere, I’d like to have that option.

Get your own gravatar by visiting Bentley
#2. July 22nd, 2008, at 10:34 PM.

Hi Kim,
That’s a good question.
While a system like this may be somewhat hot when you first set it up – because you are adding a lot of waste materials at once – over time it should become relatively cool down below. The thick layer of straw etc up top helps block sunlight. Also, if your plants grow quite large they can provide shade as well. My zucchini plants are HUGE and now overhang the trench, so that section is likely somewhat cooler than the other (sunny) areas. I am finding lots of worms active up near the surface in my tomato trench, so it doesn’t seem to be creating any issues.

I have a much wider trench in a raised bed and I’ve been somewhat cautious with it thus far because it holds a lot of material and has been quite hot. I did add some worms, but I’ll likely add many more once it has cooled down somewhat – whenever I find worms in it now, they tend to be along the edges where it is cooler.

If conditions are really dry, you may want to add water, but if you are adding a lot of water-rich materials and/or it is raining once in awhile you may be ok. I haven’t had to add much myself.

A shaded trench should do VERY well!

Get your own gravatar by visiting Clark
#3. July 22nd, 2008, at 10:52 PM.

So the summer sun’s not a problem. What about in the winter?

Get your own gravatar by visiting L.Bo Marie
#4. July 23rd, 2008, at 2:13 AM.

very cool.. I think I’d like to try this next summer :)

Get your own gravatar by visiting Karen
#5. July 23rd, 2008, at 4:30 PM.

I love this idea. I am currently worm composting in a box and want to branch out into having a vegetable garden…if I can only figure out a way to keep the dog from eating the compost and the veggies (he’s large and it’ll take a pretty strong fence to keep him out). Are you continuously adding more stuff to this trench or are you going to just let the worms break everything down before redoing the whole thing?

Get your own gravatar by visiting Bentley
#6. July 24th, 2008, at 1:00 PM.

Clark – the effect of summer sun and heat on a system like this will certainly depend on your location, and the prevailing weather conditions for a given year. We’ve actually had a pretty wet summer this year so that’s certainly helped. Another advantage of this approach is that it will indeed help to protect your worms over the winter. While you won’t likely be able to keep it actively composting (unless you add lots and lots of waste to maintain warmth), you should at least be able to keep most of your worm population from freezing (if you add a nice thick layer of mulch over top) during the winter.

Karen – I am definitely continuing to add stuff. This is a necessity, given the fact that I’m receiving so much waste from the restaurant. I am going to write a follow up post, providing some additional details that I forgot to write about.

Get your own gravatar by visiting Dwayne Clark
#7. July 25th, 2008, at 1:36 AM.

Wow Bentley…when do you find time to sleep?

Get your own gravatar by visiting Bentley
#8. July 25th, 2008, at 1:32 PM.

“Sleep”? What’s that?

(I have a 10 month old – nuff said)

Get your own gravatar by visiting Tariku M.
#9. August 20th, 2008, at 12:35 PM.

I love the idea. Now I have started to study vermicomposting.

Get your own gravatar by visiting Mary
#10. August 31st, 2008, at 4:23 PM.

This is what I want to do and didn’t even know it! I just didn’t know that I should dig the trench part, I just heap it all in a pile toward the edge of my garden.
Most of my questions have to do with weather.
Question #1
I live in Wisconsin – Do I need to take any extra precautions that you can think of so that the worms don’t freeze/bake?
Question #2
We had record setting rains in June, is that just the risk I take if I decide to do trench composting?
Question #3 If I can’t get to the compost trench for about 2-3 months during the winter to feed them (due to snow), is that a problem?
Karen – I’ve been dealing with the dog problem too! I have 2 dogs that absolutely love when they see me heading out to the compost pile. They know that they’ll eventually get a “lovely” (or as humans would say “gruesome”) snack. Does anybody have any thoughts (other than laying a chicken-wire fence over it) to prevent dogs from getting into the trench?
I can’t wait to finally order my worms and get started!
Thanks for having this site for us!

Get your own gravatar by visiting Bentley
#11. September 1st, 2008, at 3:14 AM.

Ahah – so you did indeed find the trench post, Mary! I’m glad. (recently responded to your other comment).
I live in a pretty cold region myself, but am pretty confident that I won’t completely kill off my worms this winter. Extra precautions would include adding food materials and then LOTS of bedding over top before the snow starts to fly – materials like straw, fall leaves etc. The snow itself will add an extra layer of insulation as well. The cold will cause the metabolism of your worms to slow down drastically – so don’t worry about feeding them. Worse case scenario (a REALLY cold winter), you’ll be left with cocoons that will hatch in the spring and give you a new worm population (assuming you have Eisenia fetida worms).

In the summer, just make sure to keep the trench from drying out, especially if you are not adding wet food waste regularly. The plants will suck your trench dry pretty quickly during droughts. Like winter, it will really help to have a thick layer of mulch over top for (cooling) insulation and to slow down the drying process.

Red Worms love wet conditions – as long as you don’t have a sealed system (ie one that doesn’t allow drainage) you should be fine. I find that lots of rain slows things down, but unless your garden turns into a lake, I don’t think you need to worry too much (never hurts to keep a small indoor worm bin for insurance though).

Not sure about dogs. Hmmm…hopefully someone else will chime in on that one.

Hope this helps


Get your own gravatar by visiting Mary
#12. September 1st, 2008, at 3:02 PM.

Thanks so much for getting back to me so fast!!
I’m so excited about getting started this a.m. I’m going out (with my 16 year old son :)) to start digging. I have plenty of boxes to start cutting up, and of coarse newspaper to shred. I don’t have the straw yet, but that is just down the street.
I have plenty of compost already started, but I added dirt to it just 2 weeks ago, not knowing that that is a no-no. So I’ll have to separate it a bit (yuck). My worms will be shipped tomorrow, so I’m expecting them toward the end of the week.
A few more questions for you.
#1 How fast do I need to get the worms into the compost after receiving them?
#2 Is a 12-14″ deep trench deep enough for them to survive the winter?
(I think not, but just in case the ground is too hard to dig into from the clay)
#3 Can I use boxes/newspaper with a glossy, color print on it – or just stick with the plain brown boxes and non-advertising sections of the newspaper?
I’m sorry if you’ve answered these questions somewhere before. I’ve tried to read as much as possible, but I didn’t realize just how expansive your site is. My eyes are starting to glaze :).
Kim – if you’re reading this, I’ve notice you’re from Milwaukee, I’m from New Berlin, just a hop,skip and jump away! How did your dog-doo project go?
Thanks again Bentley.

Get your own gravatar by visiting Bentley
#13. September 5th, 2008, at 3:37 PM.

Hi Mary,
Sorry for the delay getting back to you.

If you are receiving worms through the mail (sounds like you are), it is not a bad idea to get them into their system as fast as possible, or bare minimum at least get them into a shallow tub with some moist shredded newspaper to at least let them spread out a bit and get more oxygen.

I would think that 12-14″ would be fine, BUT you will really need to heap on the bedding up above the soil surface.

I generally stay away from anything glossy – there can be heavy metals etc in the inks used for these.

Hope this helps


Get your own gravatar by visiting Kim from Milwaukee
#14. September 5th, 2008, at 3:38 PM.

Hi Mary!!! Wow, we’re neighbors! It’s actually a cat doo project, and what I’m attempting to do currently is let the doodoos ‘rest’ for about a month on the compost pile before adding them to the worm bins. I think I’m going to set up an outdoor system specifically for the doodoo, like a trench system, and hope that the worms can go deep enough into the ground to survive our winter. If not, I can just go to my neighborhood tackle shop and purchase a new batch in the spring!

Mary, you can email me at kim at nsbar dot org if you want to. Sounds like you’re off and running with your new wormie venture! Congrats!

Get your own gravatar by visiting Mary
#15. September 6th, 2008, at 4:09 PM.

Hi Bentley,
I’ve ordered 2 lbs of worms that should be here this coming Wednesday. I thought they would be here last week, so I wouldn’t have been totally prepared, but everything is all set in my 6′ long, 18″ deep, 16″ wide trench.
I’ve had kitchen waste, cardboard and shredded newspaper in the trench since this past Monday. I’ve divided the trench lengthwise and will let one side work, then when it gets full start on the other side. Do I need to wait until the first side is totally “done” before I start on the second side? I assume that once I start adding material to the second side the worms will start to migrate over on their own and I’ll be left with worm castings on the first side?
I don’t know if this is your area of expertise – but regarding Kim’s post on animal waste – do I use red-wiggler worms for that also. Seems odd to me that the same worms can take care of vegi/fruit mix, and also waste from carnivores. (Omnivore’s!) I assume I would have to keep the animal waste worm castings out of the vegi garden and use it for lawn, shrub or flower fertilization?
Thanks for the sharing of your knowledge.

Get your own gravatar by visiting Bentley
#16. September 7th, 2008, at 4:48 PM.

Hi Mary,
I did something similar with my long trench (feeding on one half, lengthwise and then the other). I didn’t wait for one side to be processed before adding to the other, but I DID try to wait until one or the other sides were fairly well processed before adding any more. The point of the vermi-trench from my standpoint is that it will be an in situ fertilizer system – ie you don’t need to be removing castings – simply put your plants in a garden beside the trench. If you are doing this slowly over time and letting each side sit for awhile then yeah you could probably use the compost elsewhere, but I suspect there will still be plenty of worms in it.

Red Wigglers are excellent for processing pretty well any type of organic waste – if any worm can do it, Red Worms can. They have been used very successfully in composting toilets (processing human waste). Remember, it’s not so much the waste itself that the worms feed on – their main requirement is that there be a diversity of microorganisms colonized on the waste materials – all manures are incredibly rich in microbes and are excellent for growing worms. Some need to be handled differently due to salt/ammonia/pathogen content, but basically you can vermicompost all of them.

I would keep pet/human waste systems completely separate from any other systems and wouldn’t use the compost for food crops – on ornamentals etc for sure (once stabilized).

Get your own gravatar by visiting Mary
#17. September 29th, 2008, at 2:20 AM.

Just thought I’d update you on how things are going.
I ordered 2 lbs of Eisenia fetida worms. When the package arrived, I weighed it, and it was only 1.2 lbs. I was about ready to call and complain to the company I ordered it from, but fortunately read your site first and found out it was probably from dehydration. I gave them water right away.
It’s been 2 1/2 weeks now, and I can absolutely see that they are doing their work. The pile is going down and I can see the material is being eaten up (or whatever is happening.)
Every couple of days I take a pitch fork and tenderly poke it into the trench to lift the material up to see if I see any worms. I always see 10 – 15 worms smiling up at me.

Get your own gravatar by visiting Bentley
#18. September 29th, 2008, at 5:14 AM.

Thats great, Mary – thanks for the update!

Get your own gravatar by visiting yoders
#19. December 10th, 2008, at 3:58 AM.

i really like your worm trench idea. it’s just what i’ve been looking for. i have been composting in piles for a few years (loving it), and have been aching to try vermicomposting. i haven’t gotten around to it yet mainly because i haven’t built a box yet (one would be needed as there’s a dog here that “schnarfs” in easily-accessible materials), and i haven’t found any really thoroughly explanatory information from anyone who seems to actually have composted this way. if it’s anything like pile composting, i know that it is learned predominantly by feel and changes with the circumstances (materials, location, …). i just didn’t want to spend $15 on a cup of worms only to kill them all instantly with some simple mistake. and i have these piles i can just “throw” stuff into…
i’m making excuses… what i was getting at is that this trench is the clutch key to all my compost dreams. dog won’t get it, it seems even easier to throw stuff into than a pile, and you don’t even have to MOVE it to apply it to the garden! plus it’s even slow-release, as you mentioned, so it will feed plants continually without the need for re-application.
what i plan to do is make one of these trench-rows, modeled after your wonderfully comprehensive photos, fill it with kitchen scraps from my home plus these sweet-ass cooked grains i may be able to get (hoping hoping) from the local brewery (they put out six or seven 25-gal cans with garbage bags full of this 4 or 5 days a week) (someone i talked to called this “mash”? beer-mash?) along with all the carbon i can possibly muster. carbon is always the limiting factor… we need a “carbon resource” website or something with listings in each town.. or sign people up to donate theirs…
bla bla.. anyway, i envision back-to-back trenches covering acreage, filled to the brim with writhing red wrigglers. with huge abundances of fresh produce geysering out from in between each, of course. AYIIIIIII!!!! paradise.
thank you for your dedication and your enthusiasm and your splendid articulation.
the only other thing i could ask of you is that you make short-but-sweet instructional/descriptive/informative lists to summarize each of your concepts, so that slow readers like me, or just impatient people like everyone ELSE, would have one less excuse not to process any organic materials.
rocking site. i’m stoked to find it, and stoked for you.
alright sorry for taking up so much of your time.

Get your own gravatar by visiting Bentley
#20. December 11th, 2008, at 3:34 AM.

Wow, Yoders – thanks for the great comment! I’m really glad my article helped you have an ‘Ahah!’ moment. I appreciate the kind words about the site in general.
You are absolutely right about presenting some of my key projects etc in a more accessible manner – perhaps I can start to put together PDFs with summaries of each that people can download. I definitely DO plan to put together a video about my trench systems, so hopefully that will be a good start.
Thanks again


Get your own gravatar by visiting yoders
#21. December 11th, 2008, at 5:23 PM.

awesome. oh and i thought of one more question for you (well, for everyone) — what would happen if one used WOOD CHIPS in these trenches?
see, coarse wood chips from big chippers are easy to have dropped off in the driveway. but i’ve almost strictly used them as a mulch material for the paths, as they break down so slowly in the compost. i was just thinking about how much easier it would be to mix chips with food scraps than doing all that work with the cardboard. plus there’s gotta be some funky glues and crap in the cardboard (maybe not, i dunno.)
well, if nobody knows, i will have to do a side-by-side comparison next spring…

Get your own gravatar by visiting Kim from Milwaukee
#22. December 11th, 2008, at 5:35 PM.

Great question Yoders! I’m wondering myself, since I’ve started using wood shavings for my kitty litter (the bedding kind for gerbils). I throw it onto my compost pile, hoping it’ll break down before I can give it to my worms, but if that’s not necessary……Bentley?

Get your own gravatar by visiting Bentley
#23. December 11th, 2008, at 6:29 PM.

Hi guys!
As you’ve pointed out, Yoders – wood chips can take a loooooong time to break down. Add to that the fact that they can’t absorb moisture, and you’ve got yourself a potentially frustrating situation. You definitely want something that will provide habitat (and long-term food) for the worms and help to balance the C:N ratio in the trench. Fall leaves (although not really absorbent initially) are an excellent material when you can get them. Perhaps you could get a local farmer to drop off a load of manure for your trench – pretty much the ‘perfect’ material – just make sure not to add the worms until it is well-aged (and smells earthy).

Cardboard certainly doesn’t need to be shredded into tiny bits in order to work well in a system like this. It actually didn’t take all that long to prepare the paper/cardboard that went into my trench systems (at least not in comparison to prep times for smaller systems).

Back to the wood chips idea – I should mention that not ALL wood chips are created equal. The garden path chips are more than likely NOT ideal, but the absorbent pellets/flakes used for bedding would certainly offer a lot more potential.

Ok – nuff said

Get your own gravatar by visiting Kim from Milwaukee
#24. December 11th, 2008, at 6:41 PM.

Thanks B-man!

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#25. December 11th, 2008, at 8:13 PM.

woot. i know a lady that’ll drop off horse manure with some straw bedding mixed in — 10 yards at a time… i’ve tried composting her stuff mixed with those grains i mentioned, and it was a stinky mess; had to mix in more carbon. i’ve heard horse manure by itself is just about the correct c:n ratio… bedding would add a little c, but i imagine the urine would add back some nitrogen…
i could just fill trenches with some cardboard and some food scraps and a lot of horse manure. but i really want to mess with those grains. maybe i’ll try to put a pile of cardboard through our chipper/shredder, and see what kind of C volume i can muster that way.
how heavy can you lay the nitrogen on those worms? i mean, i know they need some carbon, but how little could they withstand? i know you need a pile at least a few feet high to get any serious heat action going. will the worms still thrive in a slightly-anaerobic environment? like, have you ever thrown them in your pit-composting pits?
sorry to bug you so much. i just want to do it right is all.
alright i’m going out to build a small worm box. i’ll use it for my backup worm supply as i experiment with trenching.

Get your own gravatar by visiting Bentley
#26. December 15th, 2008, at 8:03 PM.

Hi again,
I’ve tried working with spent grains from a brewery and, while it is supposed to be an ideal vermicomposting food according to Dr. Clive Edwards (renowned vermi researcher), I’ve found it to be terrible stuff – very difficult to keep it aerobic and appealing for the worms. I can only imagine what sort of mess you would have when it’s combined with manure!
Sounds like you have a great connection there! Ten yards is a LOT of manure – you should easily be able to get some trenches up and running. It may take a bit before the manure is ready for the worms (depends how much urine is mixed in with the manure), but shouldn’t be too long with horse manure. Manure and straw is pretty well the ultimate combo for worms – they like a habitat with a C:N somewhat higher than ideal for composting – perhaps 30-40:1 – since it is also their home.
You need to be careful with excess nitrogen for sure – you can easily kill them off if ammonia is being released (C:N 20:1 or lower) and there is also the dreaded “protein poisoning” that people talk about – which is more accurately nitrogen poisoning (since actual proteins are not necessary for this to occur).
Heat action can occur well before you get a few feet high, but if the weather is still cool this shouldn’t be so much of a concern.
Worms actually seem quite tolerant of anaerobic conditions – I think it is more the metabolites that can be produced via anaerobic processes that cause the issues. Time and time again I’ve seen them gravitate towards really wet, anaerobic zones in a bin as long as there isn’t anything else nasty going on there (like fermentation of sugar rich materials etc).
Hope this helps!


Get your own gravatar by visiting Rick
#27. April 27th, 2009, at 6:47 PM.

Well, I did it. I dug out a new flower bed at my home here in Mesa, AZ. Then I dug some more and made a trench in front of it. Currently a 3 foot by 8 foot by 18-inch deep hole, only the front 12 inches of the hole is an extra 8 or 10 inches deeper.
I laid soil augmentation stuff like peat and composted manure on the pile of dirt as I dug the hole, and then will add some more when I fill it back in.
For the wormies, I added some almost composted materials from my old not-so-compost heap, alternated with layers of cardboard and shredded newspaper. Also threw in a layer or two of kitchen veggie waste. You can sure use up a lot of material…there will be a slight delay while I replenish my scraps bucket.
Soon I will order up some worms and make some worm boxes, put some of the wrigglers in the boxes and some in the vermiculture trench bed, and see what happens.
Rick L.

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#28. May 5th, 2009, at 2:19 AM.

For 30 years and more, we have been covering our septic line with plastic bags of fall leaves. In the spring they have been dragged into the woods and piled up. The same pile receives plant wastes from our daylily gardens and other flower beds. We have never used any of them.

Please tell me; do i have a goldmine out in that pile? Or is it just another rubbish heap? Now, what do i do with it?
Thanks, the LilyLady

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#29. May 28th, 2009, at 4:08 PM.

rjinga: i’ve read and heard that earthworms are different from redworms. though it is possible that you’ve got redworms in your soil… however, i don’t think redworms get as big as small snakes…
redworms are known to eat compost before it has broken down to the point where earthworms can get it. i would recommend investing in some redworms. they’ll breed fast, if you don’t totally starve them of food, water, or shelter.
my guess is that if you do a whole trench and put redworms in there, if you keep adding some compost to one end of your trench, say every week or two, you’ll always be able to find more redworms for your next trench, or for a friend.

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#30. May 28th, 2009, at 6:13 PM.

Hello everyone — Love the trench idea!! My concern is re: dogs, rats and raccoons….esp the rats and raccoons. We have a huge population of both around here – we’re pretty rural. They get into plastic garbage cans, loose outdoor compost piles, etc. Any ideas/experience for R&R proofing/discouraging w/ a trench? I’m thinking it might not be a workable method in my area…drat….

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#31. July 8th, 2009, at 12:39 AM.

Could I add ashes from my burn barrel to a trench? I just burn boxes and paper waste and occasionally wood. I will be burning less once i get my trench started.


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#32. July 9th, 2009, at 6:35 PM.

RICK – That’s great. I would love to hear how it’s turned out for you!
JEANNELOU – I would say ‘goldmine’. Add some red worms to your pile and see what happens!
ANNE – Good question. In a recent comment response I wrote about “marking your territory” (haha), but if you want to be a little more civilized perhaps some human hair (barber shops would likely be more than happy to give it away) or other repellents. Lots and lots of bedding material over top (along with some compost) should really help to eliminate odors
TOM – Ashes can be an asset to a compost heap or garden in general since they are a good source of potassium, but I would be careful with adding them to a vermicomposting system, since potassium hydroxide (very caustic) can be created when water is added. Not really sure how much of a risk this is, but I wouldn’t personally take a chance with it.

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#33. September 1st, 2009, at 10:57 PM.

HI, I am just starting my worm compost bin. does anyone know where I can get some red worms in MIlwaukee?

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#34. September 2nd, 2009, at 2:22 AM.

Just wanted to say “hi” from your neighbor in New Berlin! I wish I could help you out with somewhere local to buy your worms, but I had to mail order them because I had a tough time trying to locate someone local too.

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#35. September 2nd, 2009, at 2:05 PM.

Jesse, I bought mine from a bait shop in Bayview, off of Howell just south of Oklahoma. Email me if you need further help.

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#36. September 2nd, 2009, at 2:13 PM.

Anne, I would try just starting out with a large trash can that you drill holes in as your compost bin. You can keep the lid on with bungie cords and that should keep out any critters.

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#37. September 4th, 2009, at 12:51 AM.

Thanks, I got some at a bait shop in Riverwest!

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#38. September 4th, 2009, at 1:56 PM.

Excellent! It’s so much cheaper than online, and then you know they’re ‘fresh’ and healthy.

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#39. September 4th, 2009, at 2:09 PM.

Hi guys – just thought I would jump in here. I think getting Red Worms and/or Euros from a bait dealer is a great idea (assuming they have the right worms), and while they certainly would be less money, it’s important to point out that you are getting far far fewer worms. Bait dealer usually sell by the worm, and if you translated their per worm price into a 1 lb equivalent, you’d probably be paying $50-$100 for a pound of worms!
That being said, I still think this is a great way for people to get started, since you’ll likely get lots of really nice ‘breeder’ worms, and it shouldn’t take all that long to grow your own thriving colony!

Just my 2 cents!

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#40. September 8th, 2009, at 3:40 AM.

Hi everyone/Bentley ,
Love you trench Ideal, I was going to do a pit 24″ diaX 36″ deep this fall & put gourds,pumpkin in it( May of 2010) this coming spring.Now I willput in the redworms too.
If you have eaten the red skined peanuts,when you finished you would have a little flakes from the roasted nuts left in the bag. Hope we are on the same page here, because coffeebeans have the same skins, called CHAFF. I have got about 6000.lbs of this chaff in the last 6monthThe chaff is really hot in the coffee roaster so to keep it fromm burnnig it is flooded with water after it leaves the coffee bean. So I get wet Chaff that is at least half water, but it has began to break down at this time. Do you think the red worms can handle it if I mix it 25% chaff/ 25% soil/ 25% sawdust, dry leaves, straw/ 25%tablestrapes,manure,white paper?

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#41. September 10th, 2009, at 1:59 PM.

Hi Joel,
That ‘chaff’ material sounds interesting – I have a feeling it would be a good worm composting food/bedding. My recommendation however is to skip the soil and sawdust – neither of these are good materials for a vermicomposting system. White paper also isn’t ideal, so you should probably using it in moderation – too much of it can potentially irritate or harm the worms (since chemicals are used to bleach it). Try substituting shredded cardboard if at all possible.

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#42. September 14th, 2009, at 6:06 AM.

I am intrigued with the trench vermicomposting idea & have been wanting to try it, but assumed you would need to line it somehow to keep out underground critters like moles/voles who might just love to lunch on well fed worms. they eat the underground parts of our potatoes & beets, I know they are well established in the garden.. have you ever had trouble with critters that want to eat your worms? Thanks, I really appreciate the how to do it info.

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#43. September 14th, 2009, at 1:19 PM.

Hi Darcie,
Good question. I don’t have moles around here (thank goodness), but there are definitely small rodents that live in my yard. I don’t THINK they are harmful to the worms but am not 100% sure. In your case (where you know there are moles in the area), setting up some sort of protective barrier would be very important since the trench would basically represent and all-you-can-eat buffet for moles. Several layers of tough landscape fabric MIGHT do it – not sure how strong/sharp their claws are. Maybe that combine with some sort of small-hole chicken wire.

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#44. September 14th, 2009, at 2:54 PM.

HI Bentley/ Darcie,
It is my understanding that moles are a pest when U have Junebug(jap. beetle or a fruit beetle, not the same beetle) larav in the soil. Remove the larav, you remove the moles.As for a barrier, if the landscape fabric does not work;try 2×8 frame before U dig your trench. Put the frame about 5″ deep, leaving 3″ out of the ground. When U dig the trench, throw the soil behind the frame,not on the frame. The frame, like a rased garden bed, should be at least 6″ back from trench wall. The frame will help you keep the trench straght & square.
Please let us know how this truns out Darcie.
Thank You for this site Bentley!

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#45. September 15th, 2009, at 4:48 PM.

thanks for your suggestions, they give me some ideas to try.. Joel can you describe your frame a little more clearly for a non carpenter such as myself? do you build it out of plywood or 2×8 lumber? thanks

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#46. September 15th, 2009, at 9:03 PM.

Hi darcie,
Sorry, I mean 2×8 lumber(1-1/2x 7-1/2 finished). U can nail it on the corner or use wood screws & a drill. Hardcore organic gardeners do not use treated wood, but I do not think it will hurt the worms. You could use hardie broads, but the price goes up. Lowie or Home Depot can help U with cost verses life of wood.
Moles stay at ground level to get worms/ roots so you should be fine.
If I can help or clear up my fumbling around, gave me a yell.
Good luck!

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#47. September 17th, 2009, at 8:08 PM.

darcie, have you heard of those sound-emitting “gopher chasers”? they’re basically metal stakes filled with D batteries and equipped with sound-makers… they beep periodically, like every 25 seconds.
it’s audible above ground to about 15 feet away, if i remember correctly. anyway, i’ve seen them work, and i’ve also seen them not work. worth a try, i’d say, if you’ve got underground rodents. i’d research a bit and see what the word is as to which brands are best, because there are many.
i think i’ve read they’re supposed to work at a range of 1/4 or maybe even 1/2 acre, but i don’t believe they’re that effective. good for a few trenches, though, i imagine.
i see they have solar ones too… good luck.

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#48. November 17th, 2009, at 5:01 PM.

I have access to as much free (uncomposted) horse manure as I want and am thinking about putting some in a vermicomposting trench. How bad does horse manure stink in these trenches? I live in the city and don’t want to offend my neighbors…

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#49. November 20th, 2009, at 4:40 AM.

Hi Jason,
Depends on just how fresh the stuff is. My favorite manure is the material that has been sitting outside for awhile. Not necessarily ‘composted’ – although I supposed it goes through partial composting when heaped up enough. I have had no real stink from the horse manure I’ve added (my food waste from the restaurant could get pretty ripe at times since there was so much of it to deal with!)

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#50. January 29th, 2010, at 4:52 PM.


Sorry for the blank post above. Do you worry that the worms could migrate over to the plants and try and eat them. Do the worms only eat dead matter or?

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#51. February 28th, 2010, at 12:03 AM.

jason: i don’t think worms will survive in fresh horse manure. i believe the worms eat stuff that bacteria (or fungi>??) have already inhabited and partially broken down. “rotten” would be a good word to describe worm food… though it does not have to stink or smell like anything at all.
The worms also need a bedding, which is also a lot better if it’s rotten. bentley’s right — you are best off making a bedding for them using materials that have been sitting around for a long time, getting moisture and darkness. think of a bale of straw left outside over the winter. you need a Carbon-heavy medium (straw, paper, leaves or, yes, manure) for the worms’ bed. manure generally comes with bedding (C). Piled up, it’ll settle down into a perfect bedding.
in that bedding, you will be able to place food. the food will sit in that dark, moist environment and begin to rot. soon, it will be good worm food. the worms will flock to it and turn it into worm castings (plant food) and more worms.
I’ve tried putting worms on a fresh horse manure pile. Actually, I think the pile may have even been a couple months old. Anyway, I found dead worms where I had left the live ones… Now, however, due to our mild & wet winters here, the redworms have somehow been able to spread all over the property. They pop up anywhere that’s a suitable environment to them — under boards, under a pile of weeds, in my (older) compost piles… I don’t know how they do it; they must be very happy.
Matt: worms eat rotten stuff. it has to already be dead. they will never kill any plants, only help them.
bentley: hey, i built my first couple worm trenches this winter… they are successful, and i give you all the credit, because i got the awesome idea completely from you. anyway, the trenches are along beds that are also hugelkultur creations — buried wood under the bed to store/provide moisture and oxygen. I constructed the 2 beds as part of a class presentation, so i’ve got photos of each stage of them. i’ll send you the pics if you’re interested for any reason.
keep trenching! your technique is very valuable to me. it should be more well-known!

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#52. March 11th, 2010, at 2:40 PM.

Matt – sorry for the delayed response! Glad to see that Yoder responded, and provided a great answer. Bottom-line, there is definitely no worry about the worms harming your plants. The only time I could imagine that happened is if the worms are being grown in the exact same system as the plants (and it certainly wouldn’t always be the case – primarily only if there are small, delicate seedlings – the movement of the worms my disrupt their growth somewhat). Given the separation in the case of the trench, this would never be a concern.
Yoder – Great to hear that you are doing well with your trenches! I will certainly be writing a lot more about mine again this year once i get a bit more active in the garden. Will actually be putting together a video about my trench systems soon as well.
I’d love to see your photos, and if you ever wanted to share what you are doing in the form of a guest blog post, please let me know. I think a lot of people would be interested!

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#53. March 16th, 2010, at 7:54 AM.

hey… what’s a “guest blog post”. i might be interested.
i’m learning a whole lot about soil happenings in school right now, and the funny thing is that worm castings still seem to trump everything in terms of reliability, efficiency and effectiveness. i try not to get too excited; i’ve still got a lot to learn. gotta keep the nose in the books, try not to think about the delightful smells emanating from the garden’s various nooks. haha — one of my compost piles cooked, cooled off, got rained on (some), and now is a gigantic worm nursery. i need some bait to lure the poor worms away from the stack before i distribute its contents amongst the trees and veg-beds.
busy busy. photos soon, i hope.
YES — get that video out there man! these trenches are the solution!!

oh yea, and the day that i wrote all that stuff responding to matt and jason, just afterwards i found your link to the youtube vid on the basics of vermicomposting. i thought, “wow, i just totally wasted everyone’s time typing all that up.” it’s all there, more thorough, simpler and more organized than I could have ever put it. congratulations on that. it inspires me.

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#54. March 21st, 2010, at 9:46 PM.

Hi Yoder – sorry for delay.
A guess blog post is simply you writing about your trench and me posting the article on the blog. If you have your own website already I’d certainly be more than happy to link over to it from the article as well.
Totally up to you – just tossed it out there in case you might be interested.
Thanks for the kudos – I just keep on keepin on and hope that people find value in my work.

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#55. March 22nd, 2010, at 8:31 AM.

I think keepin on is the thing to do. this is one of my favorite web sites; whenever i find a person to talk to about worms, i always tell them to check this place out.

say, i don’t know if you mentioned it, but a word search on this page couldn’t find anything— It would save water in this climate to have the trench on the North side of a shade-providing plant or row. Just something to consider… it would also get colder in the shade during the winter, but if you plant annuals to its south, ….. (perennials to its north?? i wonder about woody perennials liking fungally-dominated soils…)

anyway, thank you very much for the opportunity to share my experience. I apologize for taking up so much room on your trench comments. haha… I’m pretty busy right now, and I don’t know how often I’ll have news on my trenches.. Maybe i’ll take you up on the offer soon, but not just yet.

i do have one really exciting thing that I want to share… I planted a 6-pak of artichokes in various places around the property, all with plenty of sun. The one that I put IN the worm trench is way bigger than the rest. Hi-five, worms.

In a class lecture the other day, teacher was talking about commercially-sold soil humates, how they are expensive, non-sustainable, etc. .. then I was pleased when he said that worm castings are the most highly valued form of humates.
ok very long. sorryl.

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#56. April 8th, 2010, at 5:26 PM.

I am a wormer and an avid tomato grower. I didn’t see an update of the tomato harvest for the bed with the trench. This seems like a great idea, though in southwest Missouri, there are so many rocks that I might have to use a little dynamite to get a trench as deep as yours.

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#57. April 15th, 2010, at 3:42 PM.

There seems to be a pretty good population of Milwaukee vermicomposters, doesn’t there? For anyone else in this area interested in getting worms, go to Growing Power. They charge $25 for a 5 gallon bucket full of worms and bedding (and don’t worry, you’ll be getting LOTS of worms in there). There are only 2 catches to this. (1) you MUST bring your own bucket. They won’t sell you one–believe me, I tried! (2) They will quiz you on your worm knowledge. The questions aren’t terribly challenging, but they do want to make sure that you stand a good chance of keeping the worms alive.

Bentley–I suspect you have already heard of Growing Power, but if you haven’t, they’re a pretty neat organization. Their founder is working on sustainable agriculture and making fresh produce more available to inner-city kids/families. Vermicompost is central to his mission and he composts not only food waste but also brewery waste from some of Milwaukee’s smaller brewery’s. He’s also involved in aquaponics, as I know you are.

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#58. April 15th, 2010, at 3:49 PM.

MIKE – Not sure what you mean in terms of tomato harvest “update”. I talked about it a bit in the video and showed pics, but did not provide total weights or anything (is this what you were hoping for?).
I hear ya on the rock front – definitely NO fun when you run into them full-blast with your shovel!
ANNA – Growing Power is an awesome organization. Sounds like I have a similar approach with my own (Canadian) worm business – I switched over to a “worm culture” approach (essentially providing customers with worm-rich material) and am always keen to know what sort of system they’ve set up (“you DID set it up ahead of time, right???!” lol) to make sure the worms are going to a good home.

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#59. April 15th, 2010, at 3:51 PM.

Sorry, Mike – you got me all mixed up here! I thought this was my recent vermicomposting trench video post we were commenting on!!
I recommend you check out the Vermicomposting Trench section on the Hot Topics page to see all the posts, updates etc:

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#60. June 27th, 2010, at 2:14 PM.

I live in the South, hot summers & cold 10-20F(-15/-5C) winters.
My only problem with an outdoor worm bed is Fire ants, we have 4 kinds here, we also have killer honeybees, but that another blog.
Most people put the worms in old bathtubs or large containers on a wooden frame of 2X4 with the legs in bowls of oil. this stops the ants from killing & eating your worms.
Anyone from the South have a plan to stop the ants from getting in the trench system. Cinnamon & Bone meal works on deer & many bugs, not Fire ants or dogs.

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#61. August 26th, 2010, at 11:33 PM.

Hi guys, first time poster here and I am intrigued by this fantastic idea! Let’s if I got the assumptions right.

1. The trench is an inground lasagna bed with addition of purchased worms.
2. The trench with wet green stuff will not only feed the worms but also as a source of moisture for the targeted plants.
3. The trench needs to be relatively close to the planting area so the worms can move around the targeted planting area and for the plants’ root to reach the moisture.
4. The soil improvement of the planting area is done mostly by the worms and not the composting?
5. Since the trenches are relatively deep at 18-24″, it’s more efficient in helping the deeper roots since norm rototillers only tilt 6-8″?

Is my assumptions are right, then
1. How close must the trench to the planting area?
2. How often would the trench needs to be refilled?
3. How many worms per say 120 ft3 of trenches?
4. If lack of large amount of kitchen waste, can I use Alfalfa hay as green, straw as brown? What about shredder leafy branches of freshly cut hedges?

Thanks for helping.

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#62. November 17th, 2010, at 6:05 AM.

I live in SC, zone 7 our summers are high 90′s winters can get into the 20′s. Is a 2 foot trench deep enough to protect the worms from our heat? My purpose in vermiculture is to develop decent soil. My soil is clay. Will trenches fulfill this need? We can dig as many trenches as are needed. Your articles have been of great value.

Thank you

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#63. November 23rd, 2010, at 6:41 PM.

Hi everyone – sorry for the lack of responses on this one!

JOEL – you’ve raised an interesting issue. I have a friend in Texas who uses vermi-trenches, but I can’t recall what (if anything) she has done to deal with fire ants – will need to touch base with her about that.
TOFFEE – Your assumptions sound pretty good, although I would say it’s the vermicomposting process in general (not just worms) that provides the overall benefits. Also, while this can certainly benefit deeper roots, it can also really benefit the upper roots (this is where I’ve seen LOTS of evidence of roots growing right into the trench in fact)

How close you make the trench is up to you – it would probably just depend on the plants you are growing. I probably put my plants 1-2 ft away from the trench most of the time, although last year I actually planted some tomatoes right in the trench.

I recommend feeding the trench on a regular basis. With food wastes during the summer, you would likely need to provide a good feed at least once ever week or two in order to limit sinking and provide the worms with a good supply of food. With materials like manure you can probably get away with longer periods between feeding since the volume doesn’t get reduced nearly as much.

I don’t recommend adding a lot of worms initially – maybe start with a pound at the most. The last thing you want is to spend a lot of money only to discover that they don’t like the habitat. The best way to introduce them is by dumping in worm-rich material from another vermicomposting system – this way they have a protective safe zone to stay in if the trench is not providing the right sort of environment.

Rotten alfalfa is fantastic stuff AS LONG AS you can keep it nice and moist – you may want to mix in some absorbent material (shredded cardboard etc) as well. Just using straw and hay may result in a mix that dries too easily, which will lead the worms to venture off.
PAT – Our summers generally don’t get that hot, so I can’t say for sure – but my suspicion is that you would be totally fine, as long as you have ample protective bedding over top. I have heavy clay soil myself, and have been amazed with the impact that my trenches (and other vermigardening methods) have had on my yard.

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#64. May 27th, 2011, at 6:22 AM.

Seems like not much is known about the benefits of wood being used in a garden….and your right, the big wood pieces used in pathways and ground cover don’t break down fast enough to be of use in a compost pit……My method was to go to a logging/lumber site where they produced lots of sawdust each day and use that….mostly because of the Nitrogen content in it I used it in my garden where I planted potatoes….dig a trench about 10 inches deep, place a 4 or 5 inch layer of sawdust down, cover with grass clippings that have been heated until very hot (in plastic bags sitting in the sun) andopened to cool, a layer of dirt to finish filling the trenchand then put potatoe eyed skins spaced apart in hills over the top….easy to build, very little intrusive plant grown around your potatoes, and so easy to pull from the ground once the plants have matured……Good work on you web site glad to see your postings

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#65. May 29th, 2011, at 1:33 AM.

john, wood (and therefore sawdust) has an extremely HIGH C:N ratio, which is to say the opposite of what you said: it has virtually no nitrogen, and will continue to “bind” up any would-be-available nitrogen in the area as it breaks down (this concept is discussed a lot in composting literature and conversations).

Here’s my best bet as to why your potato technique works so well: Wood is almost pure carbon, but it’s “tough” carbon, so it breaks down relatively slowly (therefore eats up nitrogen slowly), compared to other forms of C (e.g. straw, paper, etc, which are “softer”… read “Teaming with Microbes”, which goes further, into bacterially- and fungally- dominated soils). Sawdust has many times the surface area as wood chips, which will work the other direction — faster decomposition, faster nitrogen-eating. But it will still go slowly. I bet your sawdust is acting primarily as a sponge that retains moisture, and an aerated medium to provide your roots with oxygen. It will also add Organic Matter to your soil as it decays, which will still hold moisture, but also nutrients, and it will provide habitat for microbes, which are the ones doing all the work (they’re the ones the worms are after)!

The grass clippings would have a fair amount of extra nitrogen to feed your ‘taters, so it’s likely a great plan to have them between the plants and the shavings.

i wish i knew where to get a bunch of free wood chips! luckyyyyy…

bentley, i’ve got a new Worm Windrow that i’m building little-by-little using kitchen scraps, chicken poop and straw. The worms love it, and the chickens love me for it. When i peel back the tarp, they crowd around and gobble down any worm in sight. Not kidding, the worms themselves are what brought us together as friends.
Now that chicken poop is almost converted to worm poop to the point where i can turn it into plants! woowoowoo

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#66. May 31st, 2011, at 9:12 PM.

Great response, Yoder! (hope that helps, John – thanks for your words).

The new system sounds great – drop me an email sometime to let me know what all you are doing these days.


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#67. April 25th, 2013, at 6:16 PM.

Why is it not attracting rodents?

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#68. July 24th, 2013, at 3:47 AM.

Hi, i realise that i’m late to the party on this one but i’ve just woken up to the fact that my entire garden has been a waste of space. i’m doing loads of reading about permaculture and all things green and sustainable which is how i found you.
my question is do you see this working on a smaller scale in a shaded garden bed? I have a garden bed on a patio under a roof which alternates semi opaque with completely opaque panels.
At the moment nothing is growing there it’s just a patch of sand but it’s right outside my back door. I’m thinking that it might be the perfect place to put an inground worm farm because it’s in almost complete shade? I live in Perth in Western Australia which gets really really hot in summer which is the other reason that i thought this may work better in the shade? Any advice really appreciated :-)

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#69. July 24th, 2013, at 6:44 PM.

As I undersand it you garden in the spring & autumn, because it is too wet in “winter” & too dry/hot in summer down under.But you should be able to build the soil with compost & worms, to make a great garden.
I double dig my raised beds, use compost, leaves, grass clippings & coffee waste, chaff & grounds in my trench garden.
I use burlap bags as mulch also.
Run over leaves & larger materials with a lawnmower to shred them.
Blood meal,bone meal, soybean mill, rock dust are all good too, but they cost money. I get leaves, grass clipping & straw free, every autumn in South Carolina, USA.This is a great site glad you found it.

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#70. July 24th, 2013, at 7:23 PM.

Thanks for the advice and encouragement, it sounds completely possible :-)

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#71. August 29th, 2014, at 4:09 PM.

I’ve read as many comments as I can so hope I’m not repeating, but do you store your browns and greens separately before adding them to your trench?
I have a lovely yard but I rent so I hope to have a very clean raised and somewhat mobile container garden setup (horse troughs, cement mixing tubs on wooden stands) next year and am looking into the best way to apply this method, and start storing compost immediately.

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#72. October 12th, 2014, at 12:09 AM.

So what will you do next season? Dig out the trench again and start again or just keep topping it up?

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#73. October 30th, 2014, at 10:00 PM.

AUBREE – I am not particularly organized when it comes to feeding my trenches. Once the foundation (composting zone) has been established, I basically just add whatever I want, when I have it available. Food materials go underneath cover materials (which, as the name implies, just get layered on top). Straw is a nice cover material for keeping things looking tidy. Not 100% sure how you would incorporate trenches into the set-ups you’ve described – it IS possible with a raised bed, but anything smaller than that and you might be taking up too much planting space.

CHRIS – I have cleaned out one of my trenches on two separate occasions:

But I don’t usually do this at all. Most of my trenches have simply evolved into windrows. If you have the time and energy, excavation can be a great approach, since you’ll end up with lots of nice material you can use as a compost/mulch, and you’ll have loads of room in your trenches for more materials.

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#74. November 1st, 2014, at 11:57 PM.

I have found that if you are keeping worms in the ground in a trench or bed.
A layer of flat cardboard boxes will shade the worm & they will eat the under side of the box.
I much my 20 blueberry plants with thick cardboard to keep down weeds & keep water in the beds in the heat of S.C.
WILD earth worms showed up under the card board, CB only last 2-3 year, but it is free.
You can over lay with leave if you like, but it is not needed.
Thank for a great site.

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#75. April 11th, 2015, at 9:56 PM.

I save kitchen ‘green waste’ (including coffee grounds, egg shells, etc) in a coffee can under sink. When full I just dig a hole in garden and bury the contents. Been doing this for several years all seasons. Never added worms, native ones multiply fast. Improves garden soil a lot.

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#76. May 28th, 2015, at 3:37 PM.

Will red worms die in your composting pile………..The inside is heating up. I turn the pile over weekly and feed and water. the dimensions are about 7 foot by 5 foot and 2 to 3 feet deep……..How long should I let these materials compost..?……….Does all the material have to be broken down before I use it………..?and should I use the material on the bottom first since this appears to be the most broken down?
I have 3 worms bins and one compost………getting ready to start a trench compost. I have a 5 gallon bucket……….a Rubbermaid tub and the Lg Rd Folgers Coffee can…………fun…….fun……………..I like to dump the coffee can and the Rubbermaid to see how many worms I have. Does this disturb or stress the worms to much?
Thank you in advance

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#77. June 26th, 2015, at 11:52 AM.

Peggylee, sounds like you’re doing it all correctly. The worms will migrate to cooler areas when it heats up in the middle, then come back once things cool down to their liking. You’ll know when the compost is ready to use because it will look like soil instead of food scraps, it’ll be nice and black and earthy smelling. Dumping the bins doesn’t harm the worms, they’re tough! They may migrate down away from the light, but that’s just what they do.

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#78. June 26th, 2015, at 8:55 PM.

I agree.

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